Information and Help in case of Violence

Violence can strike any person, at any age. It stops at no place in the world and at hardly any position. It can occur in the private sphere or at the workplace – or it can strike arbitrarily ... because you’re part of a marginalized group and therefore face discrimination and violence or simply because you were in the wrong place at the wrong time.

Violence has many faces. One can distinguish between physical, psychological, economic, sexual and online violence and sexual harassment. It may show in the language chosen, in comments and remarks, in jokes, non-verbal implications or in open confrontation. Violence occurs in personal contact, through structural inequality and is becoming increasingly present online.

Many victims do not (yet) make use of the possibility to getting help from contact points or counseling at the University of Mannheim. Together we can break the silence, raise the issue of violence and draw attention to support services.


The University of Mannheim wants all members of the university to treat each other with respect and appreciation. Therefore, the Code of Conduct of the University of Mannheim governs interaction and cooperation at the university.

  • Violence

    • Physical violence is physical behavior intended to hurt others. This can be, for example: pushing, limiting movement, locking out and so on.
    • Psychological violence often takes place verbally. The perpetrator puts the other person under pressure or insults them. This can also manifest itself, for example, in humiliating, threatening and constant criticizing. Stalking, bullying and many forms of discrimination also fall under psychological violence.
    • Economic violence can be, for example, the perpetrator not letting another person work, controlling their finances, or regulating access to their bank account.
    • Social violence often occurs in relationships and includes things like controlling the other person's contacts and isolating them, or rejecting the other person's friends.
  • Sexual violence and sexual harassment

    • Sexual violence is often a mixture of psychological and physical violence. It includes all sexual acts that are forced on another person and are therefore undesired. Forms of sexual violence range from sexual harassment to sexual assault to rape.
    • The Code of Conduct of the University of Mannheim defines sexual harassment as follows:
      “ a) Sexual harassment is any conduct of a sexual nature that is unwelcome by the victim and that has the purpose or effect of violating the victim's dignity. This includes for example:

      aa) comments of sexual content, in particular offensive remarks, comments or jokes about a person, their body, behavior or private life,

      bb) unwelcome display or visible installation of pornographic pictures, regardless of their form (e.g. calendar, screen saver, poster),

      cc) gestures or non-verbal comments of a sexual nature,

      dd) unwelcome sexual requests and/or coercion to sexual acts,

      ee) unwelcome physical contact of a sexual nature,

      ff) sexual discrimination, harassment, and violence, in particular by a person of authority taking advantage of a subordinate at the place of work or study.”
  • Cyber violence

    Various terms are used to describe different harmful forms of harassment, bullying, defamation, coercion and slander of people in digital ways over the Internet and via smartphones. The assumption of another person's identity in order to act on their behalf represents a further danger.

    Surveys and studies provide background information on digital harassment, including in popular social networks. It is particularly important to become active early on as a victim of cyber violence, to inform yourself about the various options for action and to make use of them.

    In Baden-Württemberg, the Demokratiezentrum Baden-Württemberg offers the opportunity to take action against online hate comments via the respect! hotline. Anti-democratic and anti-Semitic incidents can also be reported.

    • Zoombing
      The term spread in the course of the increased digitalization during the corona restrictions and describes an interruption of (especially public) video calls by unwanted, non-specialist content (sexualized, discriminatory, racist) by means of screen sharing. Technical handling for short-term reaction (removal of the disturbing person) as well as prevention possibilities against further abuse at especially open events are important here, but especially also on a psychosocial level the long-term handling of the consequences for the involved persons.
    • Cyberbullying
      Over a longer period of time, individuals or a group of perpetrators use cell phone or Internet applications to intentionally harm a victim. In the process, there is an asymmetrical balance of power – the victim has difficulty resisting the actions of others. Cyberbullying is independent of time and place and can take place 24 hours a day due to smartphones. Cyberbullying, unlike classic bullying, takes place with a very high degree of publicity. It can occur in a wide variety of forms.
    • Cyberstalking
      Victims are harassed through inappropriate, threatening, insulting, digital contact or even disparagement in chats, blogs and social networks. Monitoring of the victim's Internet activities, tracking of smartphones and identity abuse also show the parallelism to classic stalking.
    • Cybergrooming
      Victims in the 10 to 15 age group are targeted by adults online on Instagram, TikTok and the like. In the process, a basis of trust is gained from the adolescents, most of whom are not yet of media age, and an emotional dependency is strategically created in order to get them to engage in sexualized acts online. This can be followed by blackmail and possibly also physical abuse.

The Ministery of Science, Research and Arts of Baden-Württemberg (MWK) has ordered Michaela Spandau from Stuttgart as a lawyer in charge of sexual discrimination, sexual harassment and violence for the facilities in the MWK business unit.

nachtsam exists at the University of Mannheim as well. It is a campaign of the Ministry of Social Affairs, Health and Integration for more safety in nightlife.

The conference of equal opportunities commissioners at universities and academic institutions LaKoG has launched the campaign „Zieh einen Schlussstrich“ (“Draw a line”) against sexualized discrimination and violence at universities in Baden-Württemberg.

The association Förderverein Sicherheit in Mannheim e. V. (SiMA) also offers courses in self-defense.

The Institute of Sports at the University of Mannheim also offers courses on self-assertion and self-defense for Her*.

In her videopresentation, Tanja Kramper, managing director of the local crime prevention association Kommunale Kriminalprävention Rhein-Neckar e.V., informs you about the most important facts about violence in the region and provide tips on dealing with dangerous situations.


In order to be able to react correctly in emergencies, it is important to keep the relevant steps in mind. For protection in the event of an acute threat, call the police at 110. They also offer clear and concise information for victims on various topics and inform you about the most important emergency measures.

  • Immediate help in acute threatening situations

    • Confidential forensics
      Forensics can be performed without involving the police or filing a report. Medical confidentiality applies, all communications are treated confidentially and are only passed on to investigating authorities with explicit consent. Victims of rape or sexual violence are often reluctant to report the crime immediately after it has occurred or have difficulty deciding to go directly to the police. However, to make a legal process possible at a later point in time, it is important to document and secure findings and traces in an expert manner promptly after the experience of violence.
      • Heidelberg Violence Outpatient Clinic
        The outpatient clinic is available around the clock after making an appointment by call at +49 152 54 64 83 93. Employees are subject to confidentiality and agreements on the place/date of the examination are made promptly after a preliminary telephone conversation.
    • The Violence against Women support hotline is available at 08000 116 016 or online.
    • The Violence against men support hotline is available at 0800 123 99 00 and online
    • Phone counselling hours for women and girls from Ukraine
      The Women's Emergency Hotline in Heidelberg is offering a new phone counselling hours in Ukrainian, Russian, English and German. The offer is aimed at women and girls from the age of 14 who have fled Ukraine and have been affected by sexualized violence.
      Phone counselling hours: Thursdays from 1 to 2 p.m. at 06221 183643.
      It is intended as an initial contact and to make an appointment for counseling. For more information, see the flyer
    • Weisser Ring offers online services and a support hotline for victims at 116 006.
    • Support hotline for victims of sexual abuse for both adults and adolescents at 0800 22 55 530.
    • Important emergency contacts compiled by the German Prevention Congress (Deutscher Präventionstag, DPT)
    • Frauen- und Mädchennotruf Mannheim
      (emergency hotline for women and girls); telephone: 0621 – 10033 or
    • Luisa is an offer of help for women in the party scene of Heidelberg, Mannheim, and Ludwigshafen, who can turn to the staff with the question Ist Luisa hier? (“Is Luisa here?”) to get immediate and discreet assistance in unpleasant situations.
  • Assistance in case of domestic violence

    • Assistance in cases of domestic violence provided by the City of Mannheim
    • TheZentrale Informationsstelle Autonomer Frauenhäuser (ZIF) provides a daily and public overview of the reception capacity of registered women's refuges and safe houses where protection and support can be obtained.
    • Fraueninformationszentrum (FIZ) Mannheim (women's counseling center)
      Protection, help, and counseling for women and their children who have experienced domestic violence; telephone: 0621-37 97 90, e-mail:
    • Mannheimer Frauenhaus (women's shelter of Mannheim e.V.)
      Protection, help, and counseling for women and their children who have experienced domestic violence; telephone: 0621-74 42 42, e-mail:
    • Frauen- und Kinderschutzhaus Heckertstift Mannheim
      Protection and shelter for women and their children who have experienced sexual, physical or psychological violence; telephone: 0621-411068 or via the free support hotline 0800 1008121; e-mail:
    • The counseling and intervention center Lida of the Diakonisches Werk Rhein-Neckar-Kreis supports women after domestic violence with information and referral to further help and counseling services. A branch office in Heidelberg serves as the point of contact for the northern Rhine-Neckar district.
    • As an intervention center, Women Helping Women advises women and girls who are acutely experiencing violence in their relationship and who urgently need support (coordination and contact point within the framework of the Protection Against Violence Act and in housing expulsion proceedings; other focal points are stalking and issues of self-determined living/forced marriage). Phone: 06221/ 750 135, Email:
    • The Stronger than Violence initiative (Stärker als Gewalt – häusliche Gewalt erkennen)provides information, advice, and information on the legal backgrounds.
    • For the Heidelberg area and the Rhine-Neckar district, the guide4you project offers support to improve the local help system for women* affected by domestic violence through personal accompaniment. Until July 2021, an anonymous questionnaire is also available in 8 languages, the results of which are used to adapt the help system to the needs of women*.
  • Trauma counseling

    • BEKO Rhein-Neckar
      Expert advice for people affected by a highly stressful event. Such stressful events include, for example, burglary, fraud, violence, accidents, suicide of a close person or other misfortunate incidents. The information and counseling service is free of charge and ideologically neutral. Upon request, advice is offered anonymously.
    • Psychological Counseling Center Frauen und Mädchennotruf
      In addition to providing help in acute cases, the psychological counseling center provides counseling for sexually abused women and girls, supportive caregivers and professionals. It offers counseling and trauma therapy, legal information, parent talks, etc. at 0621 10033 or via email
    • Trauma- und Opferberatung Seehaus e. V. Sinsheim
      Appointments can be arranged free of charge at the trauma and victim counseling center of Seehaus e. V. Sinsheim: or or via telephone: 07261-94 35 521.
  • Counseling for children and teenagers

    • Nummer gegen Kummer service for children and adolescents: 116 111
    • Psychological Counseling Center Frauen und Mädchennotruf
      In addition to providing help in acute cases, the psychological counseling center provides counseling for sexually abused women and girls, supportive caregivers and professionals. It offers counseling and trauma therapy, legal information, parent talks, etc. at 0621 10033 or via email
    • LuCa Heidelberg e. V.
      Gender-sensitive work with children and young people on the prevention of violence, eating disorders, youth employment assistance, etc. 
    • Childhood-Haus Heidelberg
      Point of contact for children and young people who have suffered physical or sexual violence; telephone: 06221 56 -32430, e-mail:
    • Juuuport platform of the State Media Authority of Lower Saxony (Niedersächsische Landesmedienanstalt, NLM)
      Trained, voluntary scouts between 14 and 18 years advise young people who have had bad experiences on the Internet.
  • Consulting for individuals disposed to commit crime

    • Jedermann e. V. Mannheim
      Counseling for perpetrators, offenders, and individuals disposed to commit a crime. Contact via mobile phone and WhatsApp: 0179-4883083, 0179-308238; e-mail:
    • The Behandlungsinitiative Opferschutz (BIOS-BW)
      initiative offers therapeutic assistance by telephone for people who fear that they might commit a crime. Especially people who have sexual fantasies about children or people who have a tendency to commit violent crimes can use this free of charge and anonymous service by calling the nationwide free hotline: 0800 70 222 40
    • Men's Intervention Center/Men emergency call Fairmann e.V.
      in Heidelberg offers non-judgmental, anonymous telephone and Internet counseling for men who have used or are still using violence. Phone: 06221 600101, Email:
  • Further counseling services with different, specific focuses (LSBT*I*Q+)

    • Beratung LSBTTIQ Baden-Württemberg
      Central network to find a fitting councelling service in Baden-Württemberg
    • PLUS. Psychologische Lesben- und Schwulenberatung Rhein-Neckar
      Psychological counseling center for LGBTTIQ people and their relatives, also on the subject of violence and the prevention of violence; telephone: 0621-33 62 110, e-mail:
    • trans*support | Fachstelle für trans* Beratung und Bildung e.V.
      provides advice on issues such as experiences with discrimination, hate crime and violence. Victims of discrimination and hate crime canreport incidents anonymously here.
    • pro familia Mannheim
      Advice on pregnancy, contraception, sexuality, partnership and family, special counseling services for young people; telephone: 0621-27720 
    • AIDS-Hilfe Heidelberg e.V.
      Counseling and information on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. For anonymous advice by phone please call 06221-19 4 11; otherwise, please contact us via e-mail:
    • Counseling centers of the local police authority on various topics regarding victim protection and crime prevention.
  • Information for bystander/trustworthy persons

    Empathic support is of enormous value to victims of violence. An assault represents a massive loss of control for the persons affected. Reactions and needs can vary greatly. Therefore, it is important in the contact to ask for and respect the individual concern of desired support of the affected person. This concerns both the conversation with context, content and duration, as well as potential further actions.

    Listening actively and without judgment, believing the person concerned and not deciding anything over his or her head are good foundations for much of what follows. In the process, also take good care of yourself and seek support from confidential professional counseling centers in order to be able to deal with the situation for yourself.

    The following aspects are important for the beginning:

    • The Heidelberger Gewaltambulanz is available for confidential evidence recovery.
    • Good documentation of the course of events, place, time and persons involved (witnesses) is valuable. Please draw attention to this!
    • Inform about further contact and specialized counseling centers, which ensure confidentiality. Gladly offer accompaniment to these or to medical care.
    • Joint deliberations on suitable primary protective measures are possible, but can also be supplemented by professional expertise.
    • A report to official authorities (police, university (superiors, lecturers, legal department, personnel department, rectorate and chancellor, ...) or further official steps should only be taken with the consent of the person concerned!

    Information material of the Frauen gegen Gewalt e.V. or the help hotline Hilfetelefon Gewalt gegen Frauen under 08000 116 016 offer further orientation on how support can look like.

Information and additional material


  • The #strongerthanviolence (#stärkeralsGewalt) initiative of the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs (Bundesfamilienministerium) provides information on domestic, digital and sexualized violence, sexual harassment at the workplace, stalking and bullying. In 2020, posters in 26,000 supermarkets and 15 large shopping centers provided low-threshold information on help and counseling options. 
  • Likewise, the BMBF is working together to combat violence against women as part of the “Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence”. 
  • Stark für Frauen und gegen Gewalt: with actions, counseling services, and information material, the federal association of rape crisis centers and women’s counseling centers (Bundesverband Frauenberatungsstellen) stands up for women and against violence.
  • Frauen.VERDI – Sexismus und Gewalt: an initiative against sexism and violence at the workplace and beyond.


Especially for violence against women, data and specialised help structures are well informed and in place. Locations such as deserted parking garages, poorly lit streets or parks may well become places of assault and rape. However, people from the social proximity (e.g. relatives, partners, friends, colleagues, etc.) pose a greater threat to women: according to the Gewalt gegen Frauen (Violence against women) study conducted in 2004 by the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (Bundesministeriums für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend), every fourth woman experiences violence in her relationship, i.e. by her partner.

Violence against women in figures:

However, recent studies show that people who are part of a marginalized group are at the greatest risk for experiencing violence, such as non-binary and trans* people, people with disabilities or chronic illnesses, people who are part of an ethnic minority, and people who are part of the LGBTQIA+ community. Unfortunately, the data pool in these areas is not as big as for women.

The following large studies provide scientific evidence around violence and safety:

  • Study on security and unreported cases of violence

    Conducted by the Federal Criminal Office and the police forces of the federal states:

  • Violence in the academic/work context

    • Largest European study on gender-based violence by the Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences as part of the EU project UniSAFE. Experiences in teaching and research at 46 universities and research institutions (2022) were examined:
      • 62% of respondents said they had experienced at least one form of gender-based violence: 66% of women, 56% of men and 74% of non-binary respondents
      • Psychological violence was most common (57%), followed by sexual harassment (31%), and economic violence (10%). 8% of respondents had experienced online violence, 6% physical violence and 3% sexual violence.
        People with disabilities or chronic illnesses, people who are part of an ethnic minority, and people who are part of the LGBTQIA+ community are more often affected by gender-based violence than able-bodied, white, heterosexual people
      • Non-binary people were those at highest risk of being affected by at least one form of gender-based violence compared to all other groups analyzed.
    • Gendercrime Country Report Germany 2009–201: a quantitative and qualitative study in the higher education context at 16 selected universities in Germany:
      • 54.7% of female students stated that they had experienced sexual harassment during their studies
    • Publication of the University of Halle on sexual violence at higher education institutions (2015), only available in German
    • For further study results please visit the portal of the GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences: Center of Excellence Women and Science (CEWS) – gender-related and sexualized violence in academia

    The study Umgang mit sexueller Belästigung am Arbeitsplatz (Dealing with sexual harassment at the workplace) shows that over an individual’s entire working life, approximately one in four to five women and one in twelve to fourteen men experiences sexual harassment in the workplace context.

  • Study of the Lesbian Counselling Centre Berlin and LesMigraS

    In 2012, the Lesbian Counselling Centre Berlin and LesMigraS conducted a quantitative and qualitative study on violence against lesbian and bisexual women as well as transgender or transsexual people in Germany, who are particularly likely to be affected by discrimination (only available in German). The results are supported by an analysis of the Federal Antidiscrimination Agency (Antidiskriminierungsstelle)  on the experience of discrimination in Germany based on sexual identity (2017) that used both quantitative and qualitative data.

    Trans people are particularly often affected by sexual discrimination and violence.

  • European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)

    In 2014, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) conducted a Europe-wide study on experiences of physical, sexual, and psychological violence against women.

    In general, it can be seen that violence against women is widespread in the EU and that Germany ranks in the medium to high range in comparison with other countries. 24% of the women surveyed in Germany stated that they had suffered stalking since the age of 15. 60% of the participants in the survey have experienced at least one form of sexual harassment.

  • Studies of the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth

    Two representative studies by theFederal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (Bundesministeriums für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, BMFSFJ) provide a general insight into the issue of violence against women in Germany (2004) and specifically the life situation and stresses and strains of women with impairments and disabilities in Germany (2011).

    Selected results from the 2004 survey:

    • 42% of women have experienced psychological violence
    • 40% have experienced physical and/or sexualized violence since the age of 16
    • every fourth woman experiences domestic violence in her relationship, i.e. by her (former) partner
    • 13% of women have experienced some form of sexualized violence prosecutable by law since the age of 16
    • 37% of women who had experienced physical violence and 47% of those who had experienced sexual violence had not talked to anyone about these experiences
  • Domestic violence during the restrictions related to the coronavirus pandemic in spring 2020

    A first major German study on the period of the lockdown conducted by the Technical University of Munich and published in early June 2020 shows:

    • 3.1% of the women surveyed experienced physical violence;
    • 3.6% suffered sexual violence;
    • 3.8% experienced psychological violence, of which 2.2% were not allowed to leave the house without permission and in the case of 4.6% the partner controlled contacts with other people – including digital forms of contact.
  • Utilization of support services during the restrictions caused by the coronavirus pandemic in spring 2020

    The results of a study conducted by the Technical University of Munich conducted in June 2020 show that the available offers of assistance during the coronavirus lockdown were only sparsely used:

    • 48.2% of the victims knew of the telephone counseling service, 3.9% called the service to seek support.
    • 32.4% knew of the Violence against Women support hotline, 2.7% contacted the hotline.
    • 44.3% knew the Elterntelefon service for parents, 21.5% sought help there.
    • 5.5% knew the “Code word mask 19” campaign, where pharmacies inform the authorities when a customer says this code word; 1.8% made use of this service. (Source: idw-Online, last viewed on 20 October 2020)
  • Digital violence

    Plan International survey on digital violence:

    In the State of the World's Girls Report 2020 concerning online harassment from Plan International, 14,000 young women and girls from 22 countries were surveyed:

    •  58% experienced threats, insults and discrimination on social media worldwide
    • 70% of the German respondents said they had experienced such harassment on social media
    • 50% of girls stated they were more likely to be harassed on social media than on the streets
    • Worldwide leading platforms in terms of harassment are Facebook (39%) and Instagram (23%)

    Survey by Amnesty International 2017:

    Already at the end of 2017, the human rights organization looked at women's experiences of digital violence and harassment on the Internet and social media platforms. Of the representatively selected 500 women between the ages of 18 and 55 from the USA, New Zealand, Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Spain and Poland stated:

    • Approximately 23% had received critical comments at one time or another
    • 41% of respondents who had experienced digital violence actually felt physically threatened – 24% also feared for their families
    • Over 50% developed various psychological complaints as a result (impaired self-confidence, sleep and concentration problems, through to panic attacks and anxiety)
    • 59% stated that the digital violence came from strangers/strangers
    • 76% reported acting differently in their daily digital lives as a result of these experiences
    • Only 18% of the women asked were able to report adequate and positive reactions from social platforms to their complaint

    Cybermobbing and Cybergrooming:

    Two studies among young people on unreported cases of cyberbullying and cybergrooming conducted in 2011 by the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and Violence (Institut für interdisziplinäre Konflikt- und Gewaltforschung, IKG) Bielefeld on the one hand and as part of the Forsa survey “Cybermobbing – Gewalt unter Jugendlichen“ (Cyberbullying – Violence among Young People) on the other hand revealed different prevalence rates of victim and witness statements. This can be attributed to the fact that the Forsa survey examined the lifetime prevalence of cyberbullying, whereas the IKG study determined a three-month prevalence.

    • IKG study (survey using open-access online questionnaires for the period from February to July 2011 among pupils aged 11 to 24 years):
      • 14.1% of the schoolchildren stated that they had been victims of at least one form of cyberbullying (harassing and defamatory behavior, cyberstalking, or sexual harassment) in the past three months. 15.1% of female pupils and 12.8% of male pupils claimed to have been victims.
      • 12.6% of the pupils surveyed were themselves offenders in at least one form of cyberbullying in the last three months. 13.2% of female pupils reported that they had committed cyberbullying themselves as did 11.9% of male pupils. However, on average, male cyberbullies are more likely to commit different acts of bullying.
    • Forsa survey (telephone survey among pupils aged 14 to 20 years):
      • 32% of the young people surveyed have been victims of cyberbullying.
      • 8 % stated that they had committed cyberbullying as offenders.
      • 78% of the pupils surveyed know a victim of cyberbullying.